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War History of Afghanistan- The fall and rise of Taliban in Afghanistan

War History of Afghanistan is very brutal, Taliban has captured Afghanistan once again. The United States of America, which invited Taliban to the White House in 1980s, referred them as freedom fighters, why it has been trying to capture Afghanistan. How did Taliban established their dominance in Afghanistan, what is the history of Afghanistan and why Afghanistan is called as the graveyard of the emperors, America even after being the world super power why did it fail to control Taliban. You may not know much about all these topics. So, read on to get the answers.

In this article, we will discuss all the above-mentioned topics. And apart from these topics we will also talk about how Indian Muslims, Indian Liberals and Pakistan is perceiving the whole matter.

What are the views of common people about Taliban in Afghanistan?

In common people’s view, Taliban is a terrorist organization that has captured Kabul and right after their predominance in Kabul, the organization has freed the prisoners of Al Qaeda and asked them to create destruction. But, The Wire and Arfa Khanum Sherwani called them insurgents which means revolutionary who has been fighting against the government. To make it clear what revolutionary means we can take names like Bhagat Singh or Netaji who fought against the British rule for their country and people.

Some of the Indian Muslims are also celebrating Taliban’s predominance in Afghanistan. They are celebrating the success of Taliban and are discussing how one should fight for freedom. Some people opined that we should learn from the Taliban how to struggle and work together towards achieving freedom. In an Instagram handle that joins the Muslims of Delhi posts that to bring in Sharia Law in Afghanistan by the Taliban is a big success. It also says that the gallantry saga of this success should be shared among the Muslim brothers and friends. It also says to remain neutral and not to criticize when one is with any infidel friends.

Arfa Khanum Sherwani used the same strategy during the time of CAA protest. Addressing an audience, she said in her speech that we should continue with an inclusive protest until our religious beliefs, ideologies and slogans are accepted by the society. She also said that this protest is going towards the society in which everyone would be included without compromising with our ideology. She further said, we are not compromising our ideology but just changing our strategy.

Samajwadi party leader Choudhury Faizan is also seemed to be in full support of Taliban in Afghanistan. Rana Ayub said that Taliban is now a reformed organization and is no longer against women. It is in support of giving rights to the women.

In the mean time, Taliban killed women for wearing tight clothes. And yet, in such a scenario we are expected to call Taliban a reformed and decent organization otherwise we would be termed as Islamophobic.

Swara Bhaskar tweeted: “We can't be okay with Hindutva terror and be all shocked & devastated at Taliban terror and we can't be chill with Taliban terror; and then be all indignant about Hindutva terror! Our humanitarian and ethical values should not be based on identity of the oppressor or the oppressed.”

Arfa Khanum Sherwani tweet, "Right Wing is mocking and trolling Indian Muslims because Taliban have taken over Kabul. Even the worst human tragedies and miseries are just an 'opportunity' for them. Shame on you, Sanghis!”

While Ravish Kumar has not yet commented on Taliban's dominance in Kabul rather he pointed it towards Tata Tea.

War History of Afghanistan: Facts and figures

Now let us check the war history of Afghanistan and try to know how did Afghanistan reach to present situation and why it is called as the ‘graveyard of the emperor’.

In the year 1973, the last emperor of Afghanistan- King Zahir Shah was killed by his cousin -Mohammad Daud Khan. Khan and his People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan took over the power and he named himself president and overthrew the monarchy in a military coup. However, his rule didn’t last long and in 1979, Daud Khan was killed in a pro-soviet coup and the presidency was given in the hands of Nur Mohammad Taraki (a founding member of the Afghan Communist Party) with Babrak Karmal as his deputy. In the same year, Taraki was killed. Hafizullah Amin, an influential Communist leader was behind Taraki's death.

The Soviet Red Army crosses the Oxus River into Afghanistan to support the struggling government. The Soviet received an invitation from the new Afghan communist leader Babrak Karmal who was later installed as the head of the government, as justification for the invasion. This was the main reason for decades of war and conflict.

In the meantime, an insurgency against Taraki's regime- a client State of the Soviet Union was already forming in the countryside. These guerrillas would be known as the Mujahedeen and some of them would ultimately form Al-Qaeda.

Mujahedeen was growing in Afghanistan, who would go to Pakistan for training funded by the United States of America. And, this was called as the war against communism. In 1980's Pakistan's dictator Mohammed Zia-ul Haq in an official announcement asked all the Muslim countries to send volunteers to fight in Afghanistan. Osama Bin Laden is one of the notable names among the thousands of volunteers.

In 1983, American President Ronald Reagan meets with Mujahedeen at the white house. He calls them freedom fighters. In 1986, The Stinger Missiles supplied by the United States of America gave Afghan Guerrillas, generally known as the Mujahedeen, had the ability to destroy the dreaded Mi-24D helicopter gunships developed by the Soviets to implement their control over Afghanistan. The Soviets began negotiating withdrawal and asked for the Peace Treaty.

In 1988, Washington, Moscow, Kabul and Islamabad signed an agreement that outlines the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan. This agreement known as the Geneva Accord, covers four basic principles: the pace and time frame of the nine month Soviet withdrawal, the halt of foreign interference in the Afghan conflict, the right of the Afghan to determine their own government and the safe return of around 5 million refugees from Pakistan and Iran.

Babrak Karmal was also killed in the year 1988 and Najibullah became the leader of the government. In 15th February 1989, Soviet withdraws its last troop of soldiers from Afghanistan. People thought that now peace will prevail in the country but Mujahedeen was still fighting against Najibullah's communist party.

In 1992, Mujahedeen group enter Kabul and takes over the government. Najibullah was captured at the airport while trying to escape and was put under house arrest at UN compound. However, members of Mujahideen group didn't know whom to give the power to run the government and power-sharing among the leaders fell apart. They spend four years fighting against one another. Much of Kabul was destroyed and nearly 50,000 people were killed.

In 1994, the Taliban emerges in southern Kandhar and takes over the province and set up a rule adhering to the strict interpretation of Islam. It took 2 years for Taliban to recapture Afghanistan and in 1996, it swept across the country with hardly a fight. Sharia law was imposed and the Taliban hanged Najibullah and his brother.

Bamiyan Buddha was destroyed as they made a promise to destroy each and every statue. People were hanged in the open, girls were restricted from going to school, women were not allowed to work outside, they were also barred from going out. They were imposed with strict rules like they had to keep themselves completely covered.

In 2001, September 11, the World Trade Centre was attacked by the Al-Qaeda. In 1996 and 1998, Osama Bin Laden issued fatwa against the United States of America. In a letter to America, Bin Laden told that World Trade Centre was attacked and destroyed because America was supporting Israel.

It also mentioned the attack of 2001 World Trade Centre was the consequence of America’s supporting India for torturing the Muslims in Kashmir and its supporting Russia for torturing the Chechnya Muslims. US had installed a troop in Saudi and it also led to the attack of 2001 World Trade Centre.

After the 2001 attack, America that was supporting the Mujahedeen back in the 1980's gave an ultimatum to Mullah Omar and asked to hand over Bin Laden and dismantle militant training campus or be prepared to be attacked. Omar refuses and on 7th October, 2001, a US-led coalition launches an invasion of Afghanistan. Mullah Omar flees to Kandhar from Kabul.

Hamid Karzi, an ethnic pashtun like most Taliban, was named Afghanistan's president. In December, Mullah Omar left Kandhar and the Taliban regime officially started to collapse.

From then until the present, the government of Afghanistan was under the shelter of the US. In 2003, President George W Bush famously declared that "mission accomplished" as the Pentagon said major combat was over in Afghanistan. And from 2014, US started to withdraw its army slowly and the Afghan army started to take over the responsibility of providing security to its people.

In the meanwhile, the neighboring country was helping the Taliban to regain its power. The Taliban started to kill the air force pilots through Guerrilla warfare methods. Afghanistan was left with no pilots to handle its air force. With such a situation arising, the US asked back for its planes.

Recapturing Afghanistan

It was said that Afghanistan has an army of 300,000 soldiers. But, in fact, this number was only in papers. The recruitment for soldiers was never done, they were only taking the money in the name of recruiting soldiers. So, when the time came, the Afghan army failed to fight against the Taliban. It was like a piece of cake for the Taliban to recapture Afghanistan and rest we all know the current situation of the country.

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